Air pollution, particularly, fine dust major cause of cardiovascular disease

air pollution and diabetes

A study has found that air pollution can lead to cardiovascular diseases. Air pollution, and fine dust, in particular, is responsible for more than four million deaths each year. Almost 60 per cent of deaths occur as a result of heart diseases. The large percentage of deaths from cardiovascular disease has prompted an international group of experts from Germany, England, and the USA to analyse the negative effects of air pollution on vascular function in a review article.

Key research questions focused on components of air pollution (particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and sulfur dioxide) that are particularly damaging to the cardiovascular system and mechanisms that damage the vessels.

Professor Thomas Münzel said, “We are especially worried about ultrafine dust. These particles have the size of a virus. When ultrafine matter is inhaled, it immediately enters the bloodstream through the lungs, is taken up by the vessels, and causes local inflammation.”

“Ultimately, this causes more atherosclerosis (vascular calcification) and thus leads to more cardiovascular diseases such as myocardial infarction, acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, and cardiac arrhythmias. Of particular interest is the fact that with regard to the much-discussed diesel exhaust emissions, particulate matter and not nitrogen dioxide (NO2), both of which are produced by burning diesel fuel, have a negative effect on vascular function,” Münzel continued.

“The fine dust particles are chemically formed mainly in the atmosphere from emissions from traffic, industry, and agriculture. In order to achieve low, harmless concentrations, emissions from all these sources need to be reduced,” commented Professor Jos Lelieveld.

The findings have been published in the European Heart Journal.

[“source=thehealthsite”]

Pregnant women with heart disease should give birth before 40 weeks

Female heart patients should give birth at no later than 40 weeks gestation, beyond that harm can be caused to the mother, new guidelines by the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) recommends.

Besides pre-pregnancy risk assessment and counselling, a delivery plan should be devised at 20-30 weeks, specifying vaginal or caesarean delivery, whether an epidural or forceps will be used, and the duration of hospital stay after delivery, the guidelines said.

“Pregnancy is a risky period for women with heart disease because it puts additional stress on the heart, so the guidelines advise inducing labour or a caesarean section at 40 weeks,” said Jolien Roos-Hesselink, Professor at the Erasmus University in Rotterdam, Netherlands.

“Beyond 40 weeks, pregnancy has no added benefit for the baby and may even have negative effects,” Roos-Hesselink added.

Heart disease is the main reason women die during pregnancy in western countries, because they have a 100-fold greater risk of death or heart failure than their healthy peers.

An estimated 18-30 per cent of the offsprings have complications and up to 4 per cent of neonates die.

The new guidelines, published in the European Heart Journal, also recommended against in vitro fertilisation (IVF), contraception, and termination of pregnancy for women with heart disease.

It is because IVF often uses high doses of hormones, which increases the risk of thrombosis and heart failure, so women with heart diseases need a cardiologist’s confirmation.

“Since carrying more than one baby puts more stress on the heart, women with heart disease undergoing IVF are strongly advised to transfer a single embryo,” the guidelines said.

While women with heart disease can have a healthy pregnancy, they should be aware of a higher risk of obstetric complications including premature labour, pre-eclampsia, and post-partum bleeding.

Moreover, girls with congenital heart disease should take advice before using contraceptives because some methods are contraindicated in patients with certain types of heart disease, the guidelines noted.

[“source=indiatvnews”]

Caffeine can help patients with kidney disease live longer

Caffeine,Health,Wellness

Consuming more caffeine may help reduce the risk of death for people with chronic kidney disease. In a new study, researchers hypothesised that caffeine consumption might be associated with lower mortality among participants with chronic kidney disease. The possible protective effect of caffeine might be related to effects at a vascular level as caffeine is known to promote the release of substances, such as nitric oxide, that improves the function of the vessel.

Chronic kidney disease is associated with increased health care costs and a higher risk of death. The prevalence of the disease is expected to continue to increase worldwide. One of the study’s lead authors, Miguel Bigotte Vieira, said, “Our study showed a protective effect of caffeine consumption among patients with chronic kidney disease. The reduction in mortality was present even after considering other important factors such as age, gender, race, smoking, and diet.”

“These results suggest that advising patients with kidney disease to drink more caffeine may reduce their mortality. This would represent a simple, clinically beneficial, and inexpensive option, though this benefit should ideally be confirmed in a randomised clinical trial,” added Vieira.

The author, therefore, emphasised that this observational study cannot prove that caffeine reduces the risk of death in patients with chronic kidney disease, but only suggests the possibility of such a protective effect.

The full findings are present in the journal Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation.

[“source=hindustantimes”]