Air pollution, particularly, fine dust major cause of cardiovascular disease

air pollution and diabetes

A study has found that air pollution can lead to cardiovascular diseases. Air pollution, and fine dust, in particular, is responsible for more than four million deaths each year. Almost 60 per cent of deaths occur as a result of heart diseases. The large percentage of deaths from cardiovascular disease has prompted an international group of experts from Germany, England, and the USA to analyse the negative effects of air pollution on vascular function in a review article.

Key research questions focused on components of air pollution (particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and sulfur dioxide) that are particularly damaging to the cardiovascular system and mechanisms that damage the vessels.

Professor Thomas Münzel said, “We are especially worried about ultrafine dust. These particles have the size of a virus. When ultrafine matter is inhaled, it immediately enters the bloodstream through the lungs, is taken up by the vessels, and causes local inflammation.”

“Ultimately, this causes more atherosclerosis (vascular calcification) and thus leads to more cardiovascular diseases such as myocardial infarction, acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, and cardiac arrhythmias. Of particular interest is the fact that with regard to the much-discussed diesel exhaust emissions, particulate matter and not nitrogen dioxide (NO2), both of which are produced by burning diesel fuel, have a negative effect on vascular function,” Münzel continued.

“The fine dust particles are chemically formed mainly in the atmosphere from emissions from traffic, industry, and agriculture. In order to achieve low, harmless concentrations, emissions from all these sources need to be reduced,” commented Professor Jos Lelieveld.

The findings have been published in the European Heart Journal.

[“source=thehealthsite”]

Breakfast is the most important meal of the day. 4 reasons to never skip it

Breakfast Is The Most Important Meal,Breakfast,Benefits Of Breakfast

Know someone who’s the first one to get on a fad diet? Whether it is intermittent fasting, low carb, high fat, and no carbs at night – you name it and they are the first ones to try it. Well, that person is me.

I feel like I have been on this perennial quest to find out what’s healthy eating really like? With exercise, it is pretty easy. Workout, burn calories and follow a routine that you love. But with food and nutrition, there are way too many options, aspects to consider and obviously not enough clinical evidence of what works.

But if there’s one thing that I’ve realised (after many mistakes) is that breakfast is the indeed the most important meal of the day. You may hear of people who like to skip it or people who can survive on a bowl of fruits, but an ideal breakfast is a lot more than that. When you skip breakfast a number of things happen to your body.

Low energy

Skipping breakfast may work for you for a day, but it is not a sustainable choice. A good breakfast gives you that much needed fuel to function through the day. By skipping it, you’ll likely suffer from a drop in energy – if not on day 1, but definitely by day 7.

Weight

For people following intermittent fasting for weight loss, skipping breakfast helps to maintain their fasting window without compromising on an evening out. But according to a study, when you skip breakfast you’re low on energy and are more likely to crave for fatty foods and crave sugar.

Mood swings

Hangry is indeed a real condition. Opting to not eat breakfast can make you irritable. And if you pick coffee over breakfast to remedy that, you’ll end up with a caffeine high. But once it comes down, you’ll again experience moodiness.

Metabolism

Skipping breakfast can lead to slower metabolism. According to a study, skipping breakfast can increase inflammation. In fact, skipping breakfast or dinner can both have adverse effects.

[“source=hindustantimes”]

Risks Of Epidemics Rise In Kerala As Flood Water Recedes

Risks Of Epidemics Rise In Kerala As Flood Water Recedes

As Kerala continues to battle the worst flood disaster, it faces yet another fear: epidemics.

Health experts say as the flood water recedes, the state may have to cope with waterborne and vectorborne diseases such as cholera, typhoid, malaria, hepatitis and other fevers.

“Most houses are submerged and the people are living in relief camps where it is very difficult to maintain hygiene. So, there are chances of getting infected by typhoid, cholera, diarrhea, hepatitis A and E,” said Ashok Grover, Internal Medicine, Max Super Speciality Hospital, Vaishali.

According to the directorate of health services (DHS), Kerala, the state has already recorded 846 cases of dengue fever, 191,945 cases of acute diarrhea disease (ADD), 518 cases of malaria, 34 cases of chikungunya and 225 cases of leptospirosis (infection from animals).

“Stagnant water is the source of mosquitoes and other insects. Diseases like malaria and dengue don’t take much time to spread in relief camps,” said Amitabh Parti, Additional Director, Internal Medicine, Fortis Memorial Research Institute.

The health experts also warn that not just waterborne and vectorborne diseases, other diseases such as skin allergies, ENT problems and conjunctivitis may emerge, too.

Fever, chills, abdominal pains, vomiting, diarrhea, severe dehydration and fatigue are some of the early symptoms for both waterborne and vectorborne diseases.

“Such illnesses can be controlled before turning into major epidemics by maintaining hygiene in the relief camps. No raw fruit or food should be consumed. It is better to eat only well-cooked food. However, maintaining hygienic conditions in such an atmosphere is difficult,” Parti said.

“Washing hands is a must. Also consuming more fluids is recommended to resist falling prey to the epidemic-prone diseases. One must take ORS and other liquids such as fresh lime and coconut water,” Grover said.

The doctors recommend medicines only after medical tests.

As a preventive step, the Ministry of Health and Welfare is also taking measures to combat communicable disease.

According to the ministry, it has already set up 3,757 medical camps in Kerala and shared health advisories on infectious diseases.

“While no outbreak of any communicable disease has been reported, health experts warn that once floodwater recedes, the environment will become conducive to epidemic diseases,” said the ministry on Sunday.

The Health Ministry said it has also sent the first batch of 90 types of medicines as requested by the state.

[“source=doctor.ndtv”]

Tens of thousands of children in England rejected for mental health treatment

A little boy on his own in a school playground

More children than ever are seeking specialist mental health treatment in England but tens of thousands are being turned away despite evidence of self-harm or abuse, according to a report.

An investigation by the Education Policy Institute (EPI) found that referrals to children’s mental health services in England had increased by 26% over the last five years – but nearly one in four of those were rejected, meaning that at least 55,000 children were not accepted for treatment in 2017-18 alone.

Most of those were rejected because their condition was not regarded as serious enough to meet eligibility criteria – including young people who had experienced abuse or showed evidence of self-harm.

The report also found that even those who were accepted faced long delays in getting treatment. Children in London are having to wait more than two months on average, well above the government’s target of four weeks.

“This report shows a significant increase in demand for children’s mental health services over the last five years, even as many local authorities are having to cut back on the services they are providing. This is very worrying and could lead to increased access problems,” said David Laws, the former Liberal Democrat minister who now chairs the EPI.

The EPI collected the data through a series of freedom of information requests to child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) and local authorities. Responses were received from 54 out of 60 services and 111 of 152 local authorities.

Whitney Crenna-Jennings, the author of the report, said there was little evidence of any significant improvement in access to children’s mental services, although it does find a small reduction in the very longest waiting times.

“There continues to be a significant postcode lottery in the proportion of referrals accepted into specialist care and waiting times to treatment, with long waits in some areas,” the report notes, with the longest reported being 188 days.

The collected data showed that between a fifth and a quarter of children referred were deemed “inappropriate” for specialist treatment, with the most common reasons being that their condition was not suitable or serious enough.

“This bleak picture of vulnerable young people being turned away from specialist mental health services or facing long waiting times for treatment is all too familiar to schools,” said Anna Cole of the Association of School and College Leaders.

“The difficulty in accessing these vital services means that schools and teachers are frequently supporting and caring for young people in severe distress, even to the extent of having to take them to A&E because they have been unable to access timely specialist support.”

Treatment criteria vary widely between services and regions. In some cases children were turned down for support if they had not engaged with other services, if they only demonstrated difficulties at school, or if they displayed “normal” responses to traumatic events such as abuse or bereavement.

“Overwhelmingly, providers reported no or limited follow-up after a referral was deemed inappropriate – only a minority contacted other services deemed more appropriate and a small minority checked whether the young person had accessed other support,” the report found.

“The fact that self-harm is not always sufficient to trigger access to specialist services clearly signals that wider preventive services are needed.”

Paul Whiteman, the general secretary of the National Association of Head Teachers, said teachers were having to re-refer the majority of children who were turned down. “The reason given in most cases, that the problem is ‘not serious enough’, simply isn’t okay. Early intervention is vital when it comes to mental health,” he said.

“The government is taking steps to improve mental health services for children and young people, and its mental health green paper takes the right approach. But it is doesn’t go far enough quickly enough.

“New funding and training isn’t going to reach the vast majority of areas for more than five years. Children need help now.”

A quarter of local authorities said they had cut services related to young people’s mental and emotional wellbeing. Among the programmes cut were community-based early intervention services, school-based programmes to support children with mild or moderate mental health difficulties, and counselling and support for vulnerable young people.

[“source=TimeOFIndia”]